The Link: December “Firsts”

http://www.flickr.com/photos/71908569@N06/10954663785/

December might be the last month of the year, but it’s hosted a wide variety of interesting firsts. From the arts to books, from new inventions to technological beginnings, and from movies and television to historical events, December has proven to be an interesting month. So as the year comes to an end check out some famous – and not so famous – beginnings.

Firsts in the Arts:

December 22, 1808 – Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony given world premiere in Vienna

History.com, This Day in History (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/beethoven39s-fifth-symphony-given-world-premiere-in-vienna

Beethoven’s Fifth is arguably one of the world’s most recognizable songs, but despite its popularity, when it premiered on December 22, 1808 the song received extremely harsh reviews, since it is not uncommon for German winters reach below freezing, the instruments and the performers suffered. However Fifth Symphony quickly began to gain traction with critics like ETA Hoffman, who gave the symphony high praise in 1810. During World War II the song opened BBC broadcasts, and has been repurposed and covered in many Pop songs throughout time. Despite the harsh beginnings Beethoven’s Fifth has become an iconic piece of music throughout history.

December 12, 1913 – Stolen Mona Lisa is Recovered

History.com, This Day in History (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/imona-lisai-recovered-in-florence

On August 21, 1911 the famous painting of Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre. The heist quickly became known as the theft of the century. Newspapers across the world gave this story front page billing, directors of the museum were fired and suspended, and the Parisian Police blamed the museum’s poor security. It wasn’t until December 1913 when the painting was recovered in Florence, Italy. The thief Vincenzo Peruggia cited patriotic reasons for the theft, and spent 14 months in Jail. This was the first major art heist and recovery of the 20th century

December 1, 1933 – George Washington University, The Art of the New Deal 

NEW! The Art of the New Deal, Public Works Administration is set up

http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/pwa.cfm

In times of economic hardship, when food and jobs are scarce, how important is art to a country’s sustainability? This question was answered for the first time in the 20th century for America as Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) implemented the New Deal, a set of reforms with the aim of getting America’s economy prospering again after the Great Depression. The Public Works Administration (PWA) was institution on December 1st, 1933 as a part of this New Deal. The PWA’s goal was to fund construction of over 30,000 projects ranging from airports, schools, libraries, and museums. The PWA was instrumental in providing jobs for artists during the last legs of the Depression and during the recovery. Without the PWA the 30’s would have been a black hole in American Art History. FDR dismantled the PWA on December 4th, 1942, and, while controversial for some, it was a sign that the economy was recovering.

December 3, 1947 – A Streetcar Named Desire Premiers on Broadway

Internet Broadway Database (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.ibdb.com/production.php?id=1804

The Tennessee Williams play first premiered on December 3rd, and was one of the first times in the modern era that a play used method acting and melodramatics to portray mental instability and produce a satire on the society. This play has become a classic that has been reproduced on Broadway, in film, in opera, and for the TV. In many high schools across the US this play is considered required reading.

December 12, 1980 – Da Vinci notebook sells for over 5 million

History.com, This Day in History (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/da-vinci-notebook-sells-for-over-5-million

The sale of the Da Vinci manuscripts was the first time that a manuscript ever sold for that high of a price: $5.12 million. Da Vinci is often also considered the first Renaissance Man, as he was a master of science, literature, painting, anatomy and many others.  Later in 1994, Bill Gates would purchase this manuscript for over $30 million, and he to this day Gates loans out the manuscripts to various museums across the US.

Firsts in Trademarks and Patents:

December 1, 1948 Scrabble History

Official Scrabble Homepage (find on the ipl2)

http://www.hasbro.com/scrabble/en_US/story.cfm

On December 1st, 1948, Scrabble, the beloved word building board game, was copyright registered by its inventor, Alfred Mosher Butts. This classic game and creative versions of it continue to be popular today, especially online. For a history of the game’s development check out the Hasbro site.

December 5, 1905 & December 9, 1924 – The History of Chewing Gum and Bubble Gum

Inventors (find on the ipl2)

http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/gum.htm

December was a good month for chewing gum inventors! Chiclets gum, colorful and candy-coated, was trademark registered on December 5, 1905, and Wrigley’s gum was trademark registered on December 9, 1924.

December 10, 1878 – Black Inventors and Their Inventions List

NEW! Museum of Black Inventions and Innovations 

http://www.blackinventions101.com/inventionslist.html

The door knob and the door stop were invented by Osborn Dorsey and first patented on December 10, 1878. Documents for this patent and other exhibits are part of a touring collection of artifacts from the Museum of Black Inventions and Innovations which informs its audiences about Black, Latino and Native American inventors, achievers, pioneers and scientists. These exhibits appear at various venues throughout North America, including universities and professional conferences.

December 19, 1871 – Mark Twain Granted His First Patent on December 19, 1871

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.uspto.gov/news/pr/2001/01-61.jsp

Samuel L. Clemens, iconic American humorist and author known as Mark Twain, was also an inventor who held three patents. His first patent was granted for “an Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments” to replace suspenders, which he felt were uncomfortable.

Firsts in Books:

December 5, 1768 – First edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica published

Encyclopedia Britannica (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/186618/Encyclopaedia-Britannica/301330/First-edition

Though it took 3 years for the whole encyclopaedia to be published, the first section was released in December of 1768. Although it wasn’t as long as some of the previous encyclopaedias that had been published, it was unique in its plan and the new way that it provided information on a more specific level.

December 1, 1835 – Hans Christian Andersen’s first book of fairy tales published

Hans Christian Andersen: Fairy Tales and Stories (find it on the ipl2)

http://hca.gilead.org.il/

Hans Christian Andersen is one of the most famous tellers of fairy tales. He was collecting and writing tales for years, but his first book was published in 1835. The full text of many of his stories are available to read for free.

December 19, 1843 – Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol first published

The Man Who Invented Christmas: Charles Dickens (find it on the ipl2)

http://library.sc.edu/zellatest/dickens/part1.html

This famous book which has become a major part of many people’s Christmas traditions and has inspired too many adaptations in books, tv, and film to count was first published about a week before Christmas in 1843. By Christmas Eve it had already sold 6,000 copies and it continues to sell well to this day.

December 1887 – First time Sherlock Holmes appeared

Sherlockian (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.sherlockian.net/canon/stories/stud.html

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first Sherlock Holmes story, “A Study in Scarlet” appeared in the Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887 and was then published in book form the following year. The story wasn’t that successful, but the idea of Sherlock Holmes was and Doyle went on to publish an additional 55 stories starring the world famous detective.

Firsts in TV and Movies:

December 1934 – Bright Eyes was first released

Rottentomatoes.com (Find it on the ipl2)

http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/bright_eyes/

In December 1934, the movie Bright Eyes, starring Shirley Temple, was released for the first time. Rotten Tomatoes is a comprehensive movie review site which captures the consensus of professional critics from across the nation, and gives information and ratings about Bright Eyes. Shirley temple went on to win her first award for the song “The Good Ship Lollipop” which was featured in the movie.

December 12, 1937 – Broadcast Firsts

Tvacres.com  (Find it on the ipl2)

http://www.tvacres.com/broadnews.htm

This site contains information on “characters, places and things that appeared on television programs broadcast from the 1940s to the present (during prime time and Saturday mornings).”

On December 12, 1937, the first mobile television units for outdoor events were obtained from RCA Manufacturing Company in Camden, New Jersey by NBC station W2XBT in New York City

December 21, 1937 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs released

Disney.com (find it on the ipl2)

http://movies.disney.com/snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs

On December 21, 1937, the animated version of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released to RKO Radio Pictures. The film was based off of Brother’s Grimm Fairy Tales and produced by Walt Disney. Snow White was  the first animated feature film produced in America, the first produced in full color, the first to be produced by Walt Disney Productions, and the first in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series. Learn more about the film at Disney.com

December 15, 1939 – Gone with the Wind

Georgia Encyclopedia.org (Find it on the ipl2)

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/arts-culture/gone-wind-film

On December 15, 1939, Gone with the Wind starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh premiered for the first time. The New Georgia Encyclopedia gives readers a look at Gone with the Wind from the adaptation of the novel to film, along with information about the first premiere.

December 24, 1966 – The Good Old Yule Log Spreads To HDTV

Npr.org  (Find it on the ip l2)

http://www.npr.org/2011/12/24/143890552/the-good-old-yule-log-spreads-to-hdtv

Dec 24, 1966  the Yule Log Christmas Special premieres for the first time in New York City on WPIX. The Yule Log Christmas Special ran every year from 1966 to 1989, but returned in 2001. NRP.org gives the history behind the Yule Log and its transformation to HDTV.

Firsts in Technology:

December 11, 1901 – First wireless transmission across the Atlantic Ocean

PBS (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rescue/peopleevents/pandeAMEX87.html

Guglielmo Marconi, who is considered the father of radio, is also the first man to have figured out a way to send a wireless transmission across the Atlantic Ocean. Although he only sent Morse code of the letter “s,” he did make history that day and confirmed that such a feat was possible.

December 1, 1956 – The first color photograph of Earth taken from Space

The Epoch Times (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/world/timelines-what-was-first-photographed-in-color-dec-1-1959-151306.html

The first photo was taken in 1946, but was black and white, and taken just above the New Mexico’s atmosphere. On December 1, 1959 the United States launched the Thor missile into space. On board was a color camera.  This camera was the first color camera to take photos of Earth from space. However the photos weren’t seen until February 16th, 1960, when the data capsule would come back to Earth.  Today telescopes are launched into space that are able to see ultraviolet light and are able to take photos of distant stars and galaxies.

December 1975 – First Digital Camera

Kodak (Find it on the ipl2)

http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Milestones_-_chronology/1960-1979.htm

In December of 1975 Steve Sasson, an engineer at Kodak, invented the first digital camera. It was about the size of a toaster, but it would revolutionize the way the world captured memories forever.

December 3, 1994 – First Sony Playstation

How Stuff Works (find it on the ipl2)

http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/playstation1.htm

The first Sony Playstation was released on December 3, 1994 in Japan. Although it wasn’t the first gaming system, it did become one of the most popular, and it also marked the movement away from the cartridge system of Nintendo and into the CD-ROM world of gaming.

Firsts in History:

December 7, 1787 – First ratified state of the USA

Stately Knowledge (Find it on the ipl2)

http://www.ipl.org/div/stateknow/dates.html

Delaware was ratified as the first state of the newly formed United States of America on Dec 7, 1787. Pennsylvania followed 5 days later with New Jersey 6 days after that, becoming the first 3 states of the new union. Delaware was originally a part of Pennsylvania, but it fought as a separate entity during the American Revolutionary War and was the first to ratify the Constitution. Find out more information about when each state joined the union on the ipl2 via the link above!

December 6, 1884 – Washington Monument is Completed

America’s Library (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/gilded/jb_gilded_monument_1.html

The nation’s first president was honored with a monument in 1884. The Washington Monument is 555 ½ feet tall and was designed to resemble Ancient Egyptian Obelisk, which Pharaohs often used to mark the entrance of temple, mark a grave, or praise the Sun god.  The fact that the Washington Monument was designed in this fashion gave George Washington a god-like legacy. Throughout history this monument has seen protests, rallies, and community celebrations.

December 26-January 1, 1966 – First Kwanzaa celebrated

Official Kwanzaa Website (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.officialkwanzaawebsite.org/origins1.shtml

Kwanzaa is an African-American and pan-African holiday which is celebrated in honor of family, community, and culture. Its roots go back to “first fruits” celebrations which have taken place since ancient times. The modern celebration was founded by Dr. Maulana Karengo as a way to preserve the culture and history of African American culture.

December 3, 1967 – First human heart transplant

NEW! Western Cape Government

http://www.westerncape.gov.za/your_gov/163/documents/public_info/C/19638

Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa became famous when Professor Christiaan Barnard performed the first human heart transplant. Although the patient unfortunately died a few days later, this revolutionary procedure led the way for future transplants that would be complete successes and save thousands of lives.

December 08, 1980 – John Lennon is shot

John Lennon: The Official Site (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.johnlennon.com/biography

John Lennon was the first of the Beatles to die after being shot by Mark David Chapman. Chapman shot Lennon on New York’s Upper West Side and later pled insanity. Psychiatrists determined that Chapman was psychotic, vicious, and violent. Chapman has been denied parole 7 times.

Reminder: You can now subscribe to ipl2’s newsletter and weekly blog posts via email as well as RSS. The “Email Subscription” feature appears prominently in the upper left page on the ipl2′s News and Information WordPress blog. Subscription is free and open to all!

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In the News: Berlin Wall

Graffiti from the East Side Gallery (2006) by Dr Santa. Source: Wikimedia Commons

In 1989, Germans celebrated the fall of the Berlin Wall.  Nearly 25 years later, some are fighting to keep it up.  The longest remaining section of the infamous Cold War barricade that divided the German capital for decades is a 70-foot-long chunk that has served as an outdoor monument and art gallery since 1990.  However, a luxury apartment development plan threatened to eradicate this historical landmark earlier this month.  A stand-off between construction workers and throngs of protesters has temporarily halted work on the building project; however, the long-term preservation of the East Side Gallery remains to be seen.  While waiting to find out the piece’s ultimate fate, be sure to check out the ipl2’s Berlin Wall resources!

New resources that will be added to the ipl2 are noted NEW! All other resources can already be found in the ipl2 collection.

Berlin Wall Online (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall/

This searchable site contains vast amounts of information on the Berlin Wall including a timeline, photographs with views of Checkpoint Charlie, escapes, wall art, and the wall’s demolition. You can also find facts about the wall and an extensive archive of documents (mostly in German). It also includes links and personal narratives.

The Berlin Wall (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.newseum.org/berlinwall/

From Washington D.C.’s Newseum, this virtual exhibit tells the story of the Berlin Wall and explores how news coverage differed in East and West Berlin. Includes an essay, timeline (1945-1989), and information on censorship under Stalin.

The Wall (PBS) (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.pbs.org/programs/the-wall/

This two-part documentary that first aired on PBS in June 2010 and January 2011 can now be streamed online for free.  The first part examines life in a divided Berlin. The second part looks at the fall of the wall and the subsequent events leading up to a reunified Germany.

The Berlin Wall (Berlin.de) (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.berlin.de/mauer/index.en.html

Berlin’s official city website has an entire section dedicated to the Berlin Wall.  Highlights include information about the wall’s location, border crossings, and present-day memorials, along with a facts and figures page and a wide variety of photos.

NEW! Berlin Wall Art

http://www.berlinwallart.com/pages/us/map.html

Photographer Edward Murray captured much of the Berlin Wall’s wild and wonderful graffiti on film.  His site exhibits hundreds of these photos, grouped by geographic location.  These primary source documents help convey a sense of the size of the structure as well as the artistry and political commentary of German graffiti artists of the time.  Please note that the photographs are copyrighted by Mr. Murray and his permission should be sought in order to use or reproduce these photos.

NEW! Voices of U.S. Diplomacy and the Berlin Wall

http://diplomacy.state.gov/berlinwall/prologue.html

Sponsored by the United States Diplomacy Center, this online exhibit provides an overview of the Berlin Wall’s history with an emphasis on American governmental reactions and involvement.  An introductory video greets visitors, who can also find an archive of fascinating documents within the site.

Thank you for visiting the ipl2!

Reminder: You can now subscribe to ipl2’s newsletter and weekly blog posts via email as well as RSS. The “Email Subscription” feature appears prominently in the upper left-hand side of the page on the ipl2’s News and Information WordPress blog.  Subscription is free and open to all!

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In the News: The Pope

On Monday, February 11, 2013,  Pope Benedict XVI shocked Catholics around the world by announcing his resignation from the papacy effective February 28th, 2013. He is the first pope in 600 years to step down from the post, which is one of the reasons that this is such a surprise to even those close to him. Let’s take this opportunity to look at the history of the papacy as well as explore the Vatican.

New resources that will be added to the ipl2 are noted NEW! All other resources can already be found in the ipl2 collection.

L’Osservatore Romano (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.osservatoreromano.va/

L’osservatore Romano is the official newspaper of the Vatican. It is written in many languages, including English, for those living outside of Italy and gives an insider view of how the Vatican reports the news on happenings within. For the past several days, this newspaper has had many articles on Pope Benedict’s resignation, how the Vatican is handling it and the response of Catholics from all over the world. This newspaper gives a fascinating look at the inner workings of the Vatican.

NEW! Vatican Radio

http://en.radiovaticana.va/index.asp

Vatican Radio touts itself as the “voice of the pope and the church in dialogue with the world.” Here you will find full text and audio of Pope Benedict’s resignation. Of particular interest are the additional articles, podcasts, live radio, and videos about the papacy. For those who can’t make the trip to the Vatican, this site has a live Web-TV link to the outside of St. Peter’s Square. You can watch the goings on from the comfort of your couch!

The List of Popes: The Catholic Encyclopedia (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12272b.htm

The Catholic Encyclopedia has an exhaustive list of all of the Popes of the Vatican, beginning with St. Peter (32—67), all the way to Benedict XVI (2005—). Click on any name and you will find a biography of that Pope. Benedict was only the 9th Pope to ever resign. Click on the others to read the circumstances of their resignations – Pontian (230—235), Marcellinus (296—304), Martin I (649—655), Benedict V (964), Benedict IX (1032—45), Gregory VI (1045—46), Celestine V (1294), and Gregory XII (1406—15).

NEW! History of the Papacy

http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ac65

From a definition of the word pope to the origins of the Catholic church, this site has fascinating information about the history of the papacy from its inception. Understanding its history will further knowledge of what pressures the pope faces, how his position came about, and how it has evolved over the centuries. This site also explains why the pope usually dies in office, the process of electing a new popes, and the origin of that process.

NEW! Inside the Vatican: National Geographic News

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/11/1118_vaticanmain.html

From the book and TV documentary “Inside the Vatican, National Geographic Goes Behind the Public Facade,” National Geographic Society (NGS) takes an unprecedented close-up look at the workings of the Vatican. With chapters including St. Peter’s Basilica, The Swiss Guards, The Pope’s Day, A City-State, The World’s Most Beautiful Stuff, The Holy See, Electing a New Pope, The Secret Archives, The Making of the Inside of the Vatican, and a Kids Activity Guide, this webpage has it all for the Vatican enthusiast. Although the NGS channel is no longer showing the 2001 documentary, narrated by Martin Sheen, one can purchase the DVD from the NGS store if interested.

NEW! Dante’s World, Inferno

http://danteworlds.laits.utexas.edu/circle8a.html

The last time a pope resigned voluntarily was 1294. Interestingly, rumor has it that the great poet Dante Alighieri was so angry about it that he put the abdicating pope (called Clement in this article), Celestine V, into the antechamber of his Inferno. In the more than seven centuries since, no pope has taken the name Celestine. Taken from “Dante’s World, A Readers Guide to the Inferno” (2007) this site has an analysis of how Dante viewed Celestine’s papacy and the effects of his resignation.

Thank you for visiting the ipl2!

Reminder: You can now subscribe to ipl2’s newsletter and weekly blog posts via email as well as RSS. The “Email Subscription” feature appears prominently in the upper left-hand side of the page on the ipl2’s News and Information WordPress blog.  Subscription is free and open to all!

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In the News: Immigration

President Obama and the U.S. Congress recently unveiled their proposals for an overhaul of the American immigration system. The sites below outline the history of immigration in the United States, as well as current information on this ongoing debate.

New resources that will be added to the ipl2 are noted NEW! All other resources can already be found in the ipl2 collection.

ipl2 Pathfinder: Immigration in the United States (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.ipl.org/div/pf/entry/48539

This IPL pathfinder is a starting point for research on immigration issues in the United States. This page is designed for history students of all ages, educators, and anyone who wants to explore current immigration issues. Both print and Internet resources are provided.

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930 (find it on the ipl2)

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/

Examine the history of immigration in America with this digital collection from the Open Collections Program of the Harvard University Library, covering the period from the signing of the Constitution to the onset of the Great Depression. Search on your own, or browse by genre, topics, themes, people, and organizations. This site also includes a timeline.

The Immigration Debate (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.npr.org/series/5310549/the-immigration-debate

This collection from National Public Radio (NPR) features questions and answers about immigration debates (immigration policy in general, illegal immigrants and the U.S. economy, and the U.S.-Mexico border), and opinions about immigration from politicians and other leaders. It also includes stories on guest workers, border control, public opinion of immigration laws, immigration rights protests, and related topics.

National Immigration Forum (find it on the ipl2)

http://www.immigrationforum.org/

The National Immigration Forum advocates and builds public support for public policies that welcome immigrants and refugees and that are fair and supportive to newcomers in our country. The resources on this web site range from important immigration facts to current events and recent immigration legislation.

Immigration Equality (find it on ipl2)

http://www.immigrationequality.org/

This site explains, promotes, and defends the immigration rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and HIV-positive people under United States immigration law. The site addresses such issues as discrimination, referrals, consultations, outreach, and emergency asylum. It has a section where immigrants and would-be immigrants share their stories. Some information is also available in Spanish.

Thank you for supporting the ipl2! We hope you found these resources informative.

Reminder: You can now subscribe to ipl2’s newsletter and weekly blog posts via email as well as RSS. The “Email Subscription” feature appears prominently in the upper left-hand side of the page on the ipl2’s News and Information WordPress blog.  Subscription is free and open to all!

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The Link: The Quest for Science

The shortest and best definition of the term ‘science’ can be summed up in one short phrase, “science is life.” In one way or another, science plays a vital role in the lives of everyone, everywhere. Science often widens and enhances our lives and can challenge our misconceptions about the world in a systematic way. According to the European Scheme for the Mobility of University Students, (ERASMUS) the true purpose of science is to create helpful models of reality in order to better understand the universe.

The French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science Henri Poincaré stated that, “[t]he scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful. If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, life would not be worth living.”

New resources that will be added to the ipl2 are noted NEW! All other resources are already listed in the ipl2 collection.

Applied Sciences 

A Sightseer’s Guide to Engineering (find it on ipl2)
http://www.engineeringsights.org/
This travel guide from the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) highlights engineering achievements throughout the United States. The database may be searched by keyword, engineering discipline (such as automotive, civil/environmental, or mining), category (such as amusement park, bridge, tunnel, or monument), or geographically by clicking on the image map of the United States. Contact information, hours of operation, engineering details, a photo, and a “fun fact” are given for each sightseeing destination. 

NEW! Engineers without Borders
http://www.ewb-usa.org/
Find information on current projects and overseas development and relief from Engineers without Borders, a community-driven network of volunteers committed to making a difference around the globe. Engineers without Borders aims to use engineering to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios directly for the good of mankind. Locate information on chapters across the United States, how to become a volunteer, and community projects you can become involved in.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (find it on ipl2)
http://www.eere.energy.gov/
This searchable site serves as “a gateway to hundreds of Web sites and thousands of online documents on energy efficiency and renewable energy,” including information about buildings, transportation, industry, bioenergy, hydrogen, solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, and geothermal power. The site features consumer information, an “energy lab” for children, and information about the various other programs of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

The Archaeology Channel (find it on ipl2)
http://www.archaeologychannel.org/
This site from the Archaeology Legacy Institute (ALI), explores “the human cultural heritage through streaming media,” which allows users to travel through time to discover the diversity of the human experience. Visitors can watch videos about archeological sites, read news about research, and explore further great finds. 

NEW! Society for American Archaeology: Archaeology for the public
http://www.saa.org/publicftp/PUBLIC/home/home.html
This site from the Society for American Archaeology provides information on archaeology including news and events; educational resources for educators and archeologists; and an interactive explore archaeology section that provides information on visiting an archaeology site or an archeology museum exhibit. The site strives to not only provide information for those interested in the field of archaeology, but for archaeologists wanting to know more about working with the public.

Physical Sciences

NEW! Chemical & Engineering News
http://cen.acs.org/collections.html
Did you know those trick candles on your birthday cake use magnesium powder? Check out these collections for everything from the chemistry of everyday items (“What’s That Stuff?”), science in movies, how chemistry affects living things (“Critter Chemistry”), green chemistry, chemistry news on topics ranging from the effects of oil spills to chemicals and the economy, and more.

Physics.org (find it on ipl2)
http://www.physics.org/
Ever wonder how 3-D films work, or whether you can really levitate a frog with a magnet? The Institute of Physics, an England-based scientific society with roots going back nearly 150 years, has put together this site to answer these questions and more. They offer explanations of the physics of everyday things, cartoons explaining physics experiments you can do at home, articles on physics topics, physics news, information about careers in physics, and links to other physics-related websites. 

University of California Museum of Paleontology (find it on ipl2 – Science and Technology – Paleontology)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/index.php
Come for the dinosaurs, stay for the science! These online exhibits from the University of California, Berkeley, cover even more than special exhibits about dinosaur and mammoth fossils (though those alone are worth the virtual visit). You can read about Earth’s biomes, try to identify a “mystery fossil,” tour Earth’s geological and biological past, examine the evidence for evolution, get resources for teaching science, and read up on what exciting research the Museum of Paleontology’s scientists are working on right now. Be sure to check out their section on “Understanding Science.”

Faultline: Seismic Science at the Epicenter (find it on ipl2) – Science and Technology – Earth Sciences)
http://www.exploratorium.edu/faultline/index.html
The San Francisco Exploratorium, a museum for exploring science and art, is located in a city known for its earthquakes. Their “Faultline” exhibit covers more than the history of the famous 1906 and 1989 earthquakes: check out this site to learn about what causes earthquakes, how earthquakes affect buildings (and what we can do to make the buildings more earthquake-proof), activities to demonstrate earthquake principles, and links to real-time data on where the earth is shaking now.

Social Sciences

NEW! 100 Top Library Sites
http://www.100toplibrarysites.com/
This site provides the 100 most relevant web sites for each major category, selected, edited and ranked by professional editors.

NEW! Online Dictionary
http://lu.com/odlis/
This glossary of library terminology contains thousands of definitions, with words in the definitions hyperlinked to more definitions. Maintained by Joan Reitz, librarian at Western Connecticut State University. An excellent source for librarians and librarianship!

NEW! Cultural Studies Research
http://www.uel.ac.uk/ccsr/index.htm
Centre for Cultural Studies Research at the University of East Londonwas established to serve as an international centre for research in contemporary cultural studies, cultural theory and cultural production. The centre supports research into political and theoretical issues in cultural studies and cultural practice.”

NEW! Culture Machine
http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm
Culture Machine is a series of experiments in culture and theory. The aim of Culture Machine is to seek out and promote the most provocative of new work, and analysis of that work, in culture and theory from a diverse range of international authors. Culture Machine is particularly concerned with promoting research which is engaged in the constitution of new areas of inquiry and the opening of new frontiers of cultural and theoretical activity.”

Science Learning Network (find it on ipl2)
http://www.sln.org/
If you are a science teacher or a parent who wants to link your child to excellent science resources on the Internet, this site is for you! “The Science Learning Network (SLN) is an online community of educators, students, schools, and science museums”. Going deeper into the above link you will discover more links that further address information that pertains to science, education, and cultural topics. Also, this source has an educational Hotlists link to online resources that science educators and enthusiasts may find useful.

 NEW! 100 Best Websites for Science Education
http://www.forensicsciencetechnician.org/100-best-websites-for-science-teachers/
This is a great collection of the 100 best websites for science education. Click on the Educate tab for teaching tools and activities.

Museum of Science (find it on ipl2)
http://www.mos.org/
The Museum of Science contains extraordinary exhibition of Egyptian antiquities and numerous exhibits and films for all grade levels and subjects.

NEW! American Studies
http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/richard.robbins/legacy/anth_on_www.html#cultural
This is a must-visit site for professional anthropologists and students. It has numerous links to visual record of current and former Indian groups from the Northern Great Plains.

Formal Sciences 

Fractal Geometry (find it on ipl2IPL — Science and Technology — Mathematics — Calculus and Advanced Mathematics)
http://classes.yale.edu/fractals/
This site provides an “introduction to fractals for students without advanced math skills” and allows all students to understand their presence without an extensive scientific or arithmetical background. While employing mathematical principles, this site involves students outside of mathematics with practical applications of fractals within the arts, humanities, and social sciences.

Game Theory.net (find it on ipl2)
http://www.gametheory.net/
Game theory (also known as decision theory), a method for calculating circumstances based on others’ choices, has become a popular formal science discussion and research topic and this website provides teaching, learning, and strategic materials for its application. Many of the resources provided are from educators’ notes or student experiences and are intended to “demonstrate [game theory] concepts in a fun, interactive way.”

The History of Computing Project (find it on ipl2IPL – Science and Technology – History of Science and Technology)
http://www.thocp.net/index.html
Built by global partners, this site is a compilation of biographies, hardware, companies, games and software which comprise the history of computing and computer science. The extensive computing timeline serves as the center of the site and provides a year-by-year history of computing since 300 BC, beginning with simple calculations and traveling into the 2000s with the invention of the smartphone. Historical hardware, software, persons, and contributors to the history of computer science are indexed and highlighted as well.

NEW! The Polymath Blog
http://polymathprojects.org/
Polymath projects, or “massively collaborative mathematical research projects,” are hosted by this blog which is administered by mathematics professors, writers, and analysts. The problems proposed to the blog are collectively documented and worked on by administrators and contributors and polymath rules, many taken from the site’s associated wiki, and theories are tested and re-worked in the open space of this weblog.

Cognitive Sciences

AskPhilosophers (find it on ipl2Arts and Humanities – Philosophy)
http://www.askphilosophers.org/
Most people have not studied philosophy and “AskPhilosophers aims to bridge this gap by putting the skills and knowledge of trained philosophers at the service of the general public.” Here you can ask philosophers questions and receive answers. Previous questions are also archived by category.

Psychology.com (find it on ipl2Social Sciences – Psychology)
http://www.psychology.com/
This site provides a therapist directory, articles by therapists on mental health, and general information about various mental health topics. It also has free tests for self discovery, including career interests, personality, and depression and anxiety scales.

NEW! The Sociological Cinema
http://www.thesociologicalcinema.com/index.html
Geared towards sociology instructors, this site provides video clips helpful for learning about different sociological themes. Each video clip has a description of the major topics addressed in the clip as well as how to incorporate them into your lessons.

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